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Adding a WMS to XMap 8

Adding a WMS to XMap 8


I'm having trouble adding a WMS to XMap 8, and I'm curious if it can be done at all.

I've been using Global Mapper for geologic research for quite a while, which has the ability to download data from inside the program, from a number of sources (World Imagery is of particular use to me, as well as NE US 10m DEM and NE US Topo).

The company I work for now uses XMap 8, which seems to be a little more robust than Global Mapper, at the cost of the easy data download (or so it seems). I'm in the process of learning Xmap, which must be used due to license restrictions.

Essentially, I need to be able to zoom to a location in XMap, download a topo map, imagery, and elevation and work with the data (the tools are able to do everything I need at this point, but getting the data is a bit troublesome).

If there's a simple workaround or quick way of plopping the maps into XMap, I would be more than happy to hear them.


Just in case anyone is still struggling with getting data from WMS services… WMS map tiles can be downloaded for further off-line use using WMS Downloader. You can download georeferenced map tiles in any projection, scale and format (e.g. tif, jpeg, png), which can be then used in any application that consumes georeferenced images (I suppose XMap does).

The tool is available as the ArcGIS Add-In as well as a standalone Windows app. Disclaimer: I'm one of the coauthors of this tool and this is a licensed product. Feel free to check the trial version and video tutorials on YouTube.


Using PTV xMapServer with JavaScript mapping APIs

While xServer internet uses HTTP basic authentication with <user>/<password>, it is highly recommended to work with the token assigned to your subscription using the combination “xtok”/<token>. Using the token is a safer way than using your far more sensible account data.

This section describes how to incorporate the PTV xServer internet map services into interactive JavaScript based map controls. Look at "A map in different flavours" to see the result and the referring code of the different practices. PTV supports the following products:

PTV's own API for building map applications for the browser. While it is optimized to work with PTV xServer, it can be also be combined with many third-party services.

A reliable OpenSource mapping API with focus on established GIS standards.

Designed with simplicity, performance and usability in mind, this JavaScript mapping API was built from scratch to support mobile devices with a light-weight and flexible API.


Produce next generation i-models with Bentley Map Mobile Publisher iWare software. Customize your published features from your Bentley Map projects. Control which properties should be indexed for free text searching. Store all of your geometry and properties from your map project as well as scale-based .

Get the right GIS tools for the level of work you do. Easily view and perform light editing of your 2D/3D geospatial information. Combine your 2D and 3D information for a consolidated spatial presentation. Import and access many types of data including Oracle Spatial, Microsoft SQL Server Spatial, Esri .


GIS software

Geographic information can be accessed, transferred, transformed, overlaid, processed and displayed using numerous software applications. Within industry commercial offerings from companies such as ESRI , Intergraph and Mapinfo dominate, offering an entire suite of tools. Government and military departments often use custom software, open source products, such as GRASS , or more specialized products that meet a well defined need. Although free tools exist to view GIS datasets, public access to geographic information is dominated by online resources such as Google Earth and interactive web mapping.

Background

Originally up to the late 1990s, when GIS data was mostly based on large computers and used to maintain internal records, software was a stand-alone product. However with increased access to the internet and networks and demand for distributed geographic data grew, GIS software gradually changed its entire outlook to the delivery of data over a network. GIS software is now usually marketed as combination of various interoperable applications and APIs .

Data creation

GIS processing software is used for the task of preparing data for use within a GIS. This transforms the raw or legacy geographic data into a format usable by GIS products. For example an aerial photograph may need to be stretched (orthorectified) using photogrammetry so that its pixels align with longitude and latitude gradations (or whatever grid is needed). This can be distinguished from the transformations done within GIS analysis software by the fact that these changes are permanent, more complex and time consuming. Thus, a specialized high-end type of software is generally used by a person skilled in Remote Sensing and / or GIS processing aspects of computer science. In addition, AutoCAD , normally used for drafts of engineering projects, can be configured for the editing of vector maps, and has some products that have migrated towards GIS use. It is especially useful as it has strong support for digitization . Raw geographic data can be edited in many standard database and spreadsheet applications and in some cases a text editor may be used as long as care is taken to properly format data.

Geodatabases

A geodatabase is a database with extensions for storing, indexing, querying, and manipulating geographic information and spatial data. While some geodatabases have functions built in to allow geoprocessing the primary benefit of a geodatabase is in the "database type" capabilities that it gives to spatial data. Some of these capabilities include easy access using standard database drivers such as ODBC, the ability to easily link or join data tables, also indexing and grouping of spatial datasets independent of software platform.

Management and analysis

GIS analysis software takes GIS data and overlays or otherwise combines it so that the data can be visually analysed. It can output a detailed map, image or movie used to communicate an idea or concept with respect to a region of interest. This is usually used by persons who are trained in cartography, geography or a GIS professional as this type of application is complex and takes some time to master. The software performs transformation on raster and vector data sometimes of differing datums, grid system, or reference system, into one coherent image. It can also analyse changes over time within a region. This software is central to the professional analysis and presentation of GIS data. Examples include the ArcGIS family of ESRI GIS applications (which replaced ESRI's older Arc/INFO ), Smallworld , Civil Designer , XMap and GRASS .

Statistical

GIS statistical software uses standard database queries to retrieve and analyse data for decision making. For example, if one has geographic data that includes detailed demographic information, one can determine how many individuals of a certain age, income, and ethnicity live in a given street block. The data is sometimes referenced with postal codes or street locations rather than with geodetic data. This can be used by computer scientists and statisticians with computer science skills, with an objective of characterizing an area to aid in decisions regarding marketing , social services, emergency planning, etc. Standard DBMS can be used or specialized GIS statistical software. These are often housed on servers so that they can be queried with web browsers . Examples are MySQL or ArcSDE .

Readers

GIS readers are computer applications that are designed to allow users to easily view digital maps as well as view and query GIS-managed data. By definition, they usually allow very little if any editing of the map or underlying map data. Readers can be normal standalone applications that need to be installed locally, though they are often designed to connect to data servers over the Internet to access the relevant information. Readers can also be included as an embedded application within a web page, obviating the need for local installation. Readers are designed to be relatively simple and easy to use as well as free.

Web API

This is the evolution of the scripts that were common with most early GIS systems. An application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutines (organized as object oriented programming) designed to perform a specific task. GIS APIs are designed to manage GIS data for its delivery to a web browser client from a GIS server. They are accessed with commonly used scripting language such as VBA or JavaScript . They are used to build a server system for the delivery of GIS that is to made available over an intranet or publicly over the Internet.

Mobile GIS

GIS has seen many implementations on mobile devices. With the widespread adoption of GPS, GIS has been used to capture and integrate data in the field.

Free and Open-source GIS software

Many GIS tasks can be accomplished with free or open-source software .

With the broad use of non-proprietary and open data formats such as the Shape File format for vector data and the Geotiff format for raster data, as well as the adoption of OGC standards for networked servers, development of open source software continues to evolve, especially for web and web service oriented applications. Well-known open source GIS software includes GRASS GIS , Quantum GIS , MapServer , uDig , OpenJUMP , gvSIG and many others (e.g., see OSGeo or MapTools ).

Much open source GIS development has focused on the creation of libraries that provide functionality for third party applications. Such libraries include GDAL/OGR , and GeoTools . These libraries are used by open source and commercial software alike to provide basic functionality.

PostGIS provides an open source alternative to geodatabases such as Oracle Spatial , and ArcSDE .

Vehicle navigation

A database model of a network of roads and related features is a form of GIS data that is used for vehicle navigation systems. Such a map database is a vector representation of a given road network including road geometry (segment shape), network topology (connectivity) and related attributes (addresses, road class, etc). Geographic Data Files (GDF) is an ISO standard for formulating map databases for navigation. An Automotive navigation system will combine map-matching, GPS coordinates, and Dead reckoning to estimate the position of the vehicle. The map database is also used for route planning and guidance, and possibly advanced functions involving active safety, driver assistance and location-based services. Maintenance of databases for vehicle navigation is discussed in the article Map database management.


Results

The majority of participants in the present study were female (77·7 %), non-Hispanic white (65·5 %) and lived in non-urban neighbourhoods (79·1 % Table 1). Ninety-four per cent of participants used a personal vehicle for primary shopping trips. Many participants did not have any retail food outlets near their home (i.e. within a 1·61 or 8·05 km (1- or 5-mile) buffer). For example, 88·6 % of participants did not have a supermarket in their neighbourhood and 71·5 % did not have a convenience store within 1·61 km (1 mile). The mean distance to the nearest supermarket from a participant’s home was 9·50 km (5·9 miles) and the distances to other food outlets ranged from 4·67 to 12·55 km (2·9 to 7·8 miles). The mean perceived availability of healthy foods score was 6·2 on a scale of 0 to 12.

Table 1 Descriptive statistics of participants household shoppers (n 705) from a predominantly rural, eight-county region of South Carolina, USA, 2010

SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

† Within a 1·61 km (1-mile) buffer.

‡ Within an 8·05 km (5-mile) buffer.

Table 2 displays the results for both the separate and full models examining the relationship between the presence of and distance to each type of food outlet and the perceived availability of healthy foods. In separate models, the presence of each type of food outlet was significantly and positively associated with perceived availability of healthy foods. Supermarkets were most strongly associated with perception at the 1·61 km (1-mile) buffer (β=1·93, P<0·001), followed by drug and pharmacy outlets (β=1·77, P<0·001). Moreover, all food outlet types were found to be significantly associated with perceived availability of healthy foods in separate models using either the 1·61 or 8·05 km (1- or 5-mile) buffer. However, the unique R 2 values were low, accounting for only 1–3 % of variation. For each food outlet type, distance to the nearest store was significantly negatively associated with perceived availability of healthy foods. Thus, for every 1·61 km (1-mile) increase in distance to the nearest supermarket, a participant’s perceived availability of healthy foods decreased by 0·20 points (unique R 2 =4 %).

Table 2 Relationships between geographic retail food outlet measures and perceived availability of healthy foods among household shoppers (n 705) from a predominantly rural, eight-county region of South Carolina, USA, 2010

SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

* Squared semi-partial correlation type II for each variable separately.

† Each geographic retail food outlet measure modelled separately.

‡ Includes all geographic retail food outlet measures for either presence of or distance to outlets in models. All models adjusted for the covariates age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, employment status, household income, SNAP status, spouse or partner, number of household members and urbanicity.

§ Within a 1·61 km (1-mile) buffer.

|| Within an 8·05 km (5 mile) buffer.

When all food outlets were considered jointly, there were no associations between the presence of any type of store and perceived availability of healthy foods using the 1·61 km (1-mile) buffer. However, the presence of a supermarket within an 8·05 km (5-mile) buffer area was significantly associated with perceived availability of healthy foods (β=1·09, P=0·025) when controlling for all other food outlet types. Conversely, distance to the nearest supermarket was significantly inversely associated with perceived availability of healthy foods when accounting for distance to all other outlets (β=−0·16, P=0·003). Thus, for every 1·61 km (1-mile) increase in distance to the nearest supermarket, the perceived availability healthy foods decreased by 0·16 points. Additionally, distance to the nearest dollar and variety store was also inversely associated with perceived availability of healthy foods, whereas distance to the nearest fast-food restaurant was significantly positively associated with perceived availability of healthy foods. So, as fast-food restaurants get further away, healthy food perceptions go up. For each significant food outlet type, the unique R 2 value was only 1 %. In all models, urbanicity explained as much of the variability in perceived availability of healthy foods (unique R 2 values ranging from 2 % to 4 %) as any of the GIS-derived measures.


Family

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10 issues in urban stormwater pollution control

As pollution from traditional point sources is reduced, it is clear that much of the remaining pollution in most rivers, lakes and streams is the result of stormwater discharges from urban systems. Municipalities are adapting a variety of stormwater management practices to counteract the problem.

Water pollution control in the United States has not always moved forward in a logical or predictable pattern. But the signs are clear that cities and counties are increasingly responsible for controlling pollution form stormwater. The public’s interest in protecting natural resources, as well as state and federal legislation and regulation, ensures that cities and counties must face up to those responsibilities. But before they can do so, public works administrators must answer a number of questions about stormwater pollution, including: Is it really a problem? What regulations and requirements must be met? What tools are available to reduce stormwater pollution? How much will it cost and who should pay?

Prior to the 1972 passage of the Clean Water Act (CWA), interest had been focused primarily on minimizing pollution from point discharges of municipal or industrial wastewater. The requirements for discharge permits through NPDES, along with the mandate that all municipal wastewater, with limited exceptions, receive at least a secondary level of treatment resulted in a dramatic reduction in pollution loading to the nation’s waters and a corresponding improvement in water quality.

One study indicates that the number of persons served by publicly-owned wastewater treatment plants in the United States increased from 140 million in 1972 to 170 million in 1992. Over that same period, the number of tons of BOD5, a measure of total organic content in wastewater, discharged from these plants decreased from 7,500 tons per day to 3,500 tons per day. In other words, per capita pollution loadings decreased by more than 60 percent over that 20 year period.

As pollution from “traditional” point sources is reduced, it is clear that the remaining pollution in most rivers, lakes and streams is the result of stormwater discharges from urban systems and nonpoint runoff from agricultural sources, including sediment from eroded land, fertilizers, pesticides, plant residues and animal wastes. Depending on geographical location and types of agricultural activities, the pollution from these sources may equal or exceed that from urban sources. Indeed, many programs are in place at federal and state levels to address agricultural pollution.

The CWA contained provisions for addressing pollution from urban stormwater discharges, but it was not until municipal and industrial waste-water systems were upgraded that the attention turned to stormwater discharges. Phase I of the stormwater NPDES program began in 1987 and required cities and counties with systems serving more than 100,000 persons to complete NPDES permit applications.

The major elements of these permit applications were to define the systems and discharges to the systems, including illicit industrial discharges, to formulate monitoring programs that would define the amount of pollutants conveyed by a system and to propose “Best Management Practices (BMPs) for reducing the pollution.

These large cities were required to complete their permit applications by 1992, with a five-year renewal required in 1997. Current regulations leave those cities and counties serving fewer than 100,000 people in regulatory limbo. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was to have issued Phase II regulations covering those systems by October 1992 but missed the deadline. Various proposed revisions to the CWA have addressed requirements for these Phase II systems, but none has passed Congress.

Meanwhile, in August 1995, EPA issued a final stormwater rule that extended the deadline for permitting systems serving under 100,000 residents to 2001.

The urban environment and its supporting activities and infrastructure respond to rainfall in a variety of ways. The rain runs off residential yards typically carrying fertilizers, pesticides and yard wastes-runoff from streets carries dust, heavy metals, oil and grease.

Runoff from commercial and industrial areas conveys a variety of pollutants associated with the activities in these areas. In all urban areas, but particularly where construction is taking place, heavy loads of sediment are washed from soil stripped of its natural vegetative cover. The runoff and the pollutants it carries are usually conveyed through a system of underground pipes and above-ground open channels until it discharges to a natural stream. Some cities have combined sewer systems designed to carry both domestic wastewater and stormwater. When stormwater flows are large, these combined systems are usually designed to overflow to the natural streams at certain locations.

The Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) carry a mixture of wastewater and stormwater and have been recognized as a significant source of pollution. EPA recently issued a set of nine minimum controls that cities with combined systems are to implement by January 1997.

And, even systems designed with separate conveyances for stormwater and wastewater are frequently subject to overflows from the wastewater system. These Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs) are usually caused by leaky systems that allow large amounts of unintentional inflow or infiltration. EPA and many state environmental agencies have cited wet weather discharges as a major cause of water quality impairment and worthy of special attention.

Revisions to the CWA have been proposed by various members and committees of Congress periodically over the last several years. With the current focus on presidential and congressional elections, very little is expected to happen on re-authorization during this session of Congress.

However, another significant activity on the stormwater front is being spearheaded by EPA, which has established a Federal Advisory Committee on Urban Wet Weather Flows and subcommittees addressing SSOs and the Phase II stormwater program.

These groups are to comprehensively review federal stormwater programs and recommend measures to improve the overall effectiveness of the programs. The Urban Wet Weather Flows Advisory Committee includes representatives of business and industry, county and regional governments, environmental justice groups, environmental organizations, municipalities, commercial interests dependent on natural resources, recreational interests, state agencies and technical or academic institutions.

The activities of these groups are being coordinated by EPA and specialty consultants with skills in facilitation. An earlier facilitated effort led to EPA adoption of the CSO policy that includes the nine minimum controls. Several clear issues can be discerned within the broader currents of stormwater pollution control.

1 The watershed is the unit of planning. Despite the inherent logic of planning on a watershed basis, many plans have been and will be developed based on some other boundaries – usually political.

While geographic limits of responsibilities and funding must be respected in the implementation of plans, the natural hydrologic units are the only foundation for successful comprehensive stormwater pollution control efforts. All pending attempts to reauthorize the CWA include provisions for planning on a watershed basis.

The versions of the Safe Drinking Water Act recently passed by both the House and the Senate contain provisions for protection of drinking water sources on a watershed basis. Watersheds will be the focal unit of planning as evidenced by the legislation, regulations and interest throughout the professional community. Indeed, the Watershed 1996 Conference sponsored by the Water Environment Federation this past June drew over 2,000 attendees.

Computer modeling was used to help evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs in controlling nonpoint source loadings to watersheds in North Carolina. The Honeycutt and Lower Barton’s creeks discharge into Falls Lake, the water supply for the Raleigh, N.C. and most of Wake County.

Annual pollutant loadings from the watersheds were estimated for existing, current zoning build-out and three future development plans. The structural BMPs were evaluated for effectiveness in improving water quality in the watersheds, ease of implementation, operation and maintenance requirements and costs.

2 Public involvement is essential. To become effective, stormwater pollution control starts with the support and cooperation of those living in the watershed.

Community involvement has been a key element in many successful stream cleanup efforts. Examples include “stream teams” that organize local volunteer units to periodically gather trash and debris from urban streams, environmental science classes from local high schools and colleges that voluntarily monitor stream quality, programs to label storm drains so that waste products such as pesticides and used motor oil are not dumped in them and local businesses to help sponsor activities.

Public awareness of the holistic nature of water and watersheds leads people to better decisions on stewardship, and this, in turn, leads to more prudent use of lawn and garden care products and more conscientious disposal of waste products by the public.

3 It all starts with erosion control. By far the most significant urban stormwater contaminant is sediment. Not only is it aesthetically displeasing, but concentrations of other pollutants can be frequently associated with the concentrations of sediment.

Construction activities are the chief culprit in increased sediment places where the natural vegetative cover has been removed and bare soil is subject to the full erosive force of rainfall and runoff.

Effective erosion control activities at construction sites, such as erosion fences and mulch soil covers, are broadly practiced, and most cities and counties enforce effective erosion control ordinances.

4 Urban habitat must be protected. “Many urban stream corridors have been abused and neglected,” says Steve John, president of Environmental Planning and Economics and a member of Spiderweb, a coalition of government agencies and environmental groups working to create a river greenway in Decatur, Ill.

“Restoring them as public treasures requires attention to water quality, to restoration of aquatic and riparian habitats and to land use and recreation opportunities, and stormwater or CSO planning should integrate all three elements.”

It has long been recognized that theoverall water quality of urban streams can be measured by the vitality and diversity of animal and plant life supported by the riparian system. If the stream supports a healthy population of fish and other species, it is more likely to be safe for human contact.

Conversely, there is also increasing recognition that the first flush or urban runoff frequently has relatively minor impact on habitat values, as many types of biota can survive short periods of impaired water quality but are much more sensitive to the overall long-term, chronic water quality in their aquatic ecosystem.

5 The most cost effective technologies must be used. Many measures are available for controlling urban stormwater pollution. The effective usually focus on preventing the contaminants from ever the storm drainage system.

Examples are household hazardous waste disposal centers, periodic street sweeping and erosion control at construction sites.

In some cases, stormwater conveyance and detention facilities can be retrofitted with flow control structures to enhance their performance for pollution control, either as wet or dry detention basins or as constructed wetlands. Also, particularly in addressing CSOs, a significant amount of pollutants can be removed from stormwater by use of relatively cost-effective engineered facilities such as vortex separators or specially configured screens.

6 Stormwater may eventually become drinking water. The old school of thought was the protection of urban streams and rivers from contamination was needed for aesthetics. Today, however, some cities in the arid Southwest have built storm drainage detention facilities that serve as basins for recharge of groundwater which serves as the source of potable supply. Many metropolitan areas draw raw water supplies from lakes or canals that receive runoff from surrounding upstream or urban areas.

The American Water Works Association, which represents major public water suppliers throughout the United States, Canada and Mexico, recently invited a group of experts to address technical issues and legislation focused exclusively on protection of sources of supply.

7 The use of natural systems will grow. While urban drainage systems have typically included large amounts of concrete, steel and asphalt, new systems are being designed and constructed with a greater reliance on natural processes. Constructed wetlands and riparian buffer zones are often built to remove pollutants or prevent them from entering the watercourse.

Also, many communities have turned to the use of specifically constructed vegetative erosion control facilities to line and protect stream channels. The natural systems also provide habitat value and are much more aesthetically pleasing than traditional concrete-lined channels.

The Ramsey Lake Constructed Wetland in Portland, Ore., will treat stormwater runoff from industrial and residential areas that recently had their sewer system separated.

Stormwater can go directly into the nearby Columbia Slough after going through the wetland, thus adding capacity to the remaining combined sewer system.

“The new wetland helps our sewer system and enhances wildlife habitat”, says Dean Marriott, director of Portland’s Environmental Services Department.” It has also been an excellent way to teach school groups about pollution prevention, students have helped with planting and water quality monitoring.”

8 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) will serve as the foundation of many communities, stormwater management plans in the future. Progressive cities have GIS in place and are continually updating the data within the systems.

At most basic level, the GIS provides an accurate and easily accessible repository for physical data, including locations, elevations, dimensions, materials and dates of construction associated with an urban storm drainage system.

It can also include all of the information about the watershed, such as slope and land use, that relates to estimating runoff and can streamline computer modeling efforts.

GIS is increasingly being used as an operations and maintenance tool to store data such as locations of complaints and maintenance records for facilities, and it can also be used to prepare exhibits and data for public relations purposes.

9 Control of stormwater pollution may be traded for upgrades at wastewater treatment facilities. As long as the level of pollution in a stream is kept low, it may not matter which source pollutants are removed from stormwater, runoff or wastewater treatment facilities.

In many urban environments, wastewater treatment plants have been designed and constructed for secondary treatment. Upgrading these plants to advanced treatment levels can oftentimes become extremely expensive, and it may be more cost-effective to implement BMPs to control storm-water pollution within a watershed as opposed to developing advanced treatment facilities at specific point source locations.

EPA recently released a “Draft Framework for Watershed-based Trading,” to help and encourage such cost-effective and creative solutions to water pollution control.

The framework provides for several combinations of point-point, point-nonpoint and nonpoint-non-point source trading.

Although each potential for effluent trading must be viewed in the context of the individual situation, city and county planners and engineers should consider such trades as means to stretch available public funds. For example, Phase 1 of the Tar-Pamlico Basin in North Carolina, begun in 1989 and completed in 1994 set interim goals and established a framework for nutrient reduction trading and included monitoring and modeling. Phase II will apply the results of the first phase to reach long-term goals established through 2004. Most controllable nitrogen and phosphorous loads come from agricultural nonpoint sources such as livestock and crops.

At Tar-Pamlico, extensive improvements in treatment at point sources were estimated to cost somewhere between $250 per kilogram and $500 per kilogram, reduced while nonpoint-source reductions were priced at $56 per kilogram for members and $62 per kilogram for non-member point sources.

This ambitious basin-wide strategy worked and reduced overall nutrient loading while average flows to receiving waters increased.

Responsibility for nutrient load reductions is allocated among association’s members who can receive nutrient credits (allowances) if they are able to reduce nutrient discharge below their allocations.

These credits can be traded with other members or saved for future use. Meeting the goal of reducing nutrients by 200,000 kilograms per year exclusively with point-source control is estimated to cost between $50 million and $100 million.

Achieving the same reduction entirely through funding nonpoint-source controls in the form of BMPs costs approximately $11.2million.

Buffer strips around waterways to remove nutrients, no-till cultivation to minimize runoff from agricultural fields and holding ponds to prevent animal wastes from being washed directly into waterways can be effective solutions.

10 Stormwater pollution control can be financed by user fees. According to the most recent comprehensive survey of stormwater utilities conducted, user fees provide the major source of income for 78 percent of the responding utilities.

For many years, the trend in financing public services has moved away from general funds and toward service charges, and this trend is expected to continue.

Although most of the stormwater user fee systems in place are formulated to recover costs associated with some measure of stormwater runoff quantity, 26 percent of the respondents indicate that user fee credits or other incentives are provided to encourage customers to control or reduce stormwater pollution.

The survey also indicates that 11 percent of the utilities have user fees specifically designed to provide for the separate recognition and equitable recovery of costs associated with both stormwater quality management and stormwater quantity management.

While many communities have been fearful of the potential for federally mandated control of stormwater pollution, the ongoing revolution in thinking about watersheds and their uses in the urban setting offers the opportunity for new and creative approaches to improving the quality of stormwater runoff.

Les Lampe is a general partner, Howard Andrews is a senior water resources engineer and Kirk Kisinger is a water resources engineer with Black & Veatch, Kansas City, Mo.


Application of Decision Making Technique

The team's decision to implement a supply inventory tracking database was comprised using the Decision-making Pie chart. We found this to be a more direct form of problem solving than the other methods. The chart allowed for us to visually see where the majority of our efforts should be focused. The steps within each respective slice helped the team to progress in an efficient and effective manner.
Framing the problem is the first slice of the pie. Within this slice there are three objectives to be accomplished. The initial task of identifying the problem was presented to the team by a fellow member. This allowed us to begin with the end in mind. Our task was to develop a tracking system for supplies. With this step accomplished, we were able to move on to the next task of defining criteria, goals and objectives.
The team was in agreement on the implementation of a tracking database. Since each member of the team had experience in creating and deploying databases the criteria were established by compiling each team member's inputs. There was no additional budget established for completing this project, our goal was to implement an effective database using resources the company already owned. We were able to find excess user licenses for Microsoft Access in the supply closet. The team agreed that this would be a viable solution since it was easy to develop forms and reports within the program. Since our objective was now clearly defined, we were able to proceed to evaluating the effects of the problem.
We requested copies of the projected budget report for this year as well as copies from the previous two years. This way we could establish the effect the lack of a tracking means had on the company's budget. We were able to conclude that the company was spending an overage of money on unnecessary supplies and not enough money on supplies that were in demand. This was the final step in framing the problem.

Essays Related to Application of Decision Making Technique

1. Public Participation in Environmental Decision-Making:

Making whole necessarily implies participation." . What major changes occurred in the participatory approach and more specifically in the public participation in environmental decision-making (EDM) over the past twenty years? . (Nelson, N. and Wright, S., 1995) The idea of public participation in decision making is not new. . New methodologies for including the public in decision making have been developed and tested worldwide. . In the USA, the Jefferson Center has designed a wide range of processes (citizen juries, feedback panels, public participation workshops) that bring lay ci.

2. Software Crimes: The Ethical And Economical Downfalls

The office based its decision on White-Smith Music Co. vs. . According to federal law, duplicating software for profit, making multiple copies for use by different users within an organization, and giving an unauthorized copy to someone else is prohibited. . Node licenses are also slowly being phased out because they are mainly used in a client/server environment, since the licensed software may be used only on a specified workstation in which a user must log on to in order to access and execute the software application. .

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3. The real option approach to investment decision making

The real option approach to investment decision making does not provide a superior alternative to traditional methods Introduction Capital investment decisions are among the most important strategic decisions a company can make. . Following that it began to be incorporated in corporate financial strategies, shown to have a range of applications and Brennan and Schwartz (1985) applied option pricing techniques from finance to the evaluation of natural resources. . Between now and the time of decision, market conditions will change unpredictably, making one or other of the available de.

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  • Grade Level: High School

4. Redeveloping The Organization To Implement QMS And Improve The Bottom Line

Statistical basis for managerial decision making. 2. . Application to service organizations instead of manufacturing sector, which was original arena of implementation. (This is a special case, derived from and going beyond the original applications to manufacturing. . Statistical basis for managerial decision making. . Application to service organizations instead of manufacturing sector, which was original arena of implementation. .

  • Word Count: 1433
  • Approx Pages: 6
  • Has Bibliography
  • Grade Level: Undergraduate

5. An approach to systems development that would minimise the c

The decision to develop a more up to date system would become imperative. . The waterfall model and the SSADM will be discussed in brief, followed by more detailed information on Joint Application Design (JAD), Prototyping and Rapid Application Development (RAD). . Some of the major techniques employed include requirements analysis, dataflow modelling and function definition. . The same phases that are followed in the traditional SDLC are also followed in RAD, but the phases are shortened and combined with each other to produce a more streamlined development technique. . J.

6. Management and Forecasting

The customer driven readiness techniques that we focused on are approachable changes that can be implemented with training and empowered employees. . This month we will explore some forecasting techniques for remanufacturers that will use some of your company's internal data to understand product lifecycle and then approximate cartridge total cost over the life cycle. . Enterprise Readiness Planning There are many software applications available to support manufacturing managers understanding of their enterprise processes. . The huge leap in performance and functionality of enter.

  • Word Count: 2750
  • Approx Pages: 11
  • Has Bibliography
  • Grade Level: Undergraduate

7. Advancements In Diagnostic Imaging Techniques Of The Brain

The first diagnostic imaging technique to be used, now considered somewhat extinct in the specialty of neurodiagnology was the x-ray. . New research even suggests the technique of brain scans may even help modern medicine predict one's chances for progressing to psychosis long before signs or symptoms appear (Sumich et al.). . This agent acts by adding contrast or enhancing the blood vessel network supplying an abnormality, making such abnormality more visible on a film. Gadolinium, gadolinium-DPTA, gadodiamide is an intravenously-injected MR contrast agent which shortens the T1 of .

  • Word Count: 3038
  • Approx Pages: 12
  • Has Bibliography
  • Grade Level: Graduate

8. Geographic Information Systems

The Local Government Guide to Geographic Information Systems: Planning and Implementation offers this definition of a GIS: A geographic information system is a computer technology that combines mapping and information stored as data to generate maps and reports, to provide a planned and systematic approach to collecting and managing location-based information, and to enable elected and appointed official to improve planning and decision making. . The report then concludes with a comparison of some current applications. . The type of spatial data collection should be considered when .


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Geographic Information Systems Comprehensive Study by Type (Hardware, Software, Service), Application (Public, Private), By End User (Agriculture, Construction, Transportation, Utilities, Mining, Oil & Gas), Technology Type (Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), Internet Mapping), By Function (Mapping, Surveying, Telematics and Navigation, Location-Based Services) Players and Region - Global Market Outlook to 2024

  • Summary
  • Market Segments
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables & Figures
  • Companies Mentioned

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a system that combines data and geography together to provide us information about what belongs were. Geographic Information Systems is a computer-based tool that evaluates, captures, stores, check, manipulates and visualizes data related to geographic information, usually in a map. GIS can use any information that includes location. The location can be expressed in many different ways, such as latitude and longitude, address, or ZIP code. These systems are used for many factors such as GIS in Mapping, Telecom and Network services, Accident Analysis and Hot Spot Analysis and others. Due to the development of smart cities and urbanization and integration of geospatial technology with mainstream technologies for business intelligence are making the market to big growth in the forecasting years.

  • Development of Smart Cities and Urbanization
  • Integration of Geospatial Technology with Mainstream Technologies for Business Intelligence
  • The Growth of Enterprise GIS Solution
  • Increased Availability of Spatial Data and Cloud Technology
  • Growing Adoption of Geospatial Solutions in Transportation
  • Adopting the Use of Digital Data and Demand for 3D-based GIS
  • Miniaturization of Systems
  • High Cost for Geospatial Solutions
  • Data Constraints in GIS Development
  • Regulations and legal Issues About the GIS

Cloud Computing in GIS and Development of 4D GIS Software

Amigocloud, Inc. (United States), Autodesk, Inc. (United States), Beijing Unistrong Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (China), Bentley Systems, Incorporated (United States), Blue Marble Geographics (United States), Caliper Corporation (United States), Champion Instruments, LLC (United States), Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) (United States), General Electric Co. (United States) and Geosoft Inc. (Canada)

The Global Geographic Information Systems market is gaining huge competition due to involvement of United States companies that constantly invest in research & development to meet market expectation with new innovation.

On December 3, 2019 - Trimble has announced the acquisitions of Cansel Survey Equipment's Can-Net and AllTerra New Zealand's iBase networks. The acquisitions significantly increase the global footprint of Trimble-owned Virtual Reference Station (VRS) networks by adding key geographies in North America and New Zealand.

List of players that can be included in the study on immediate basis are Golden Software, LLC (United States), Handheld Group AB (Sweden), Harris Corporation (United States) and Hexagon AB (Sweden),.


Keywords

Mehrija Hasicic received her BSc and MSc degrees in Electrical Engineering and Electronics at the International Burch University, Sarajevo in 2014 and 2016, respectively. She is currently working at the Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department of the International Burch University as a senior research and teaching assistant. Her interests include embedded systems and related engineering disciplines.

Damir Bilic received his BSc degree in Electrical Engineering and Electronics at the International Burch University, Sarajevo in 2015. He is currently preparing his master thesis and working at the Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department of the International Burch University as a student assistant. His interests include embedded and control systems.

Harun Siljak received his BoE and MoE degrees in Electrical Engineering from the Department of Automatic Control and Electronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Sarajevo in 2010 and 2012, respectively, as well as PhD in Electrical Engineering and Electronics from International Burch University in 2015 where he holds the post of Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics. His research interests range from applied mathematics and control theory to telecommunications and electronics.


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